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Statistical Yearbook of Latin America and the Caribbean, 2018
Electronic version


The Statistical Yearbook for Latin America and the Caribbean of ECLAC presents a set of basic statistics on the economic, sociodemographic and environmental situation of the region during a specific time period. This information is part of the statistics available in CEPALSTAT, the statistical databases and publications portal of ECLAC.

This edition of the Yearbook includes information available to mid-December 2018.

The Yearbook comprises three chapters. The first covers demographic and social indicators and includes statistical information on population, labour, education, health, housing and basic services, poverty and income distribution, and gender. The second chapter presents economic statistics relating to trade, balance of payments and domestic prices, as well as national accounts. The statistical series are expressed in dollars. The third chapter provides quantitative information available on the environment.

Given the abundance of data —often diverse and sometimes conflicting— now accessible to researchers, special attention must be paid to technical aspects specifying the source of the data, their definition and coverage. This information is presented in a fourth chapter available in the electronic version of this Yearbook, which deals with methodology and metadata, supplementing the more specific information contained in the footnotes and sources of each of the tables and graphics in this Yearbook.

There are differences between the printed and electronic versions of the Yearbook.

The printed version contains a selection of summary tables and graphics providing statistical information from the regional perspective, with emphasis on the international comparability of data, such as the information on poverty and national accounts statistics in dollars prepared by ECLAC.

The electronic version, available on the ECLAC website, includes 404 tables —and over a much longer period— with more detailed information on countries' economic, social and environmental situation. These tables are accessible from the pdf version via hyperlinks.

Researchers are advised to consult the CEPALSTAT website for more detailed statistical information on the region. This portal contains a series of thematic databases covering a variety of fields (social, national accounts, the environment, gender affairs, production activities and external trade, among others), which are updated regularly. These data may be used to generate statistical tables and charts in different formats, with rapid processing via online web services.


The data presented in the Statistical Yearbook for Latin America and the Caribbean have been calculated using international methodologies and standards, to assure comparability among countries. For this reason, these values do not necessarily coincide with national figures.

This edition includes information available up to mid-December 2018.

The totals given in the tables and graphics correspond to the sum or to the average of the individual values shown in each table, unless otherwise stated.

The figures given for different groups of countries correspond to the set of reporting countries for that period or year, unless otherwise stated. For this reason, the years or periods in a series may not be strictly comparable.

Individual figures and percentages in tables may not add up to the corresponding total, because of rounding.

In this publication, the term "country" is used to refer to territorial entities, whether these are States as understood by international law and practice or simply territories for which statistical data are maintained on a separate and independent basis. The denomination “Caribbean Netherlands” refers to Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius. The denomination “Guadeloupe” includes Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin (French part).

Unless otherwise indicated, the geographical coverage of the Yearbook includes the following countries, provided that information presented for the table or graphic in question is available:

Latin America: Argentina, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of).
The Caribbean: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas Barbados, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Caribbean Netherlands, Curaçao, Dominica, French Guyana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guyana, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sint Maarten (Netherlands part), Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands and United States Virgin Islands.

The following symbols and abbreviations have been used in the tables and graphs in the Yearbook:

– Three dots (...) indicate that data are not available or cannot be disaggregated.
– A dash (—) indicates that the amount is zero or negligible.
– A point (.) is used to indicate decimals.
– Use of a hyphen (-) between years, e.g. 2010-2015, indicates reference to the complete number of calendar years involved, including the beginning and end years.
– The abbreviation n.e.s. indicates that the item in question is not elsewhere specified (or not included).
– Reference to "tons" means metric tons, and to "dollars" means United States dollars, unless otherwise stated.
– Callouts in capital letters between square brackects ([A]) refer to data sources.
– Callouts in small letters (a) refer to technical notes.
– CACM, Central American Common Market.
– CELADE, Latin American and Caribbean Demographic Centre-Population Division of ECLAC.
– ECLAC, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean.
– FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
– IUCN/UNEP-WCMC, International Union for Conservation of Nature and United Nations Environment Programme-World Conservation Monitoring Centre.
– MERCOSUR, Southern Common Market.
– OLADE, Latin America Energy Organization.
– UNEP, United Nations Environment Programme.
– UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
– UNPD, United Nations Population Division.
– UNSD, United Nations Statistics Division.
– WHO, World Health Organization.

The Excel files of the electronic version of the Yearbook, which contain the data used for the tables and graphics included in the printed version (pdf), may be consulted online by clicking on the icon.

All the statistical data included in this Yearbook and other statistical information on these topics can be accessed through the ECLAC databases and statistical publications portal, CEPALSTAT.

2.1 NATIONAL ACCOUNTS
2.1.1 NATIONAL ACCOUNTS OF LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN, IN DOLLARS


2.1.1.1Annual growth rates of gross domestic product
2.1.1.2Annual growth rates of per capita gross domestic product
2.1.1.3Total gross domestic product, at constant market prices
2.1.1.4Per capita gross domestic product, at constant market prices
2.1.1.5Total gross domestic product, at current market prices
2.1.1.6Per capita gross domestic product, at current market prices
2.1.1.7Gross domestic product, by kind of economic activity, at constant market prices, regional total
2.1.1.8Annual growth rates of gross domestic product, by kind of economic activity, regional total
2.1.1.9Contribution to the growth rate by kind of economic activity, at constant market prices
2.1.1.10Latin America: gross domestic product, by kind of economic activity, at constant market prices
2.1.1.11Latin America: annual growth rates of gross domestic product, by kind of economic activity
2.1.1.12The Caribbean: gross domestic product, by kind of economic activity, at constant market prices
2.1.1.13The Caribbean: growth rates of gross domestic product, by kind of economic activity
2.1.1.14Gross domestic product, by kind of economic activity, at current market prices
2.1.1.15Latin America: gross domestic product, by kind of economic activity, at current market prices
2.1.1.16The Caribbean: gross domestic product, by kind of economic activity, at current market prices
2.1.1.17Latin America: gross domestic product, by type of expenditure, at constant market prices
2.1.1.18Latin America: annual growth rates of gross domestic product, by type of expenditure, at constant market prices
2.1.1.19Contribution to the growth rate by type of expenditure, at constant market prices, regional total
2.1.1.20Latin America: gross domestic product, by type of expenditure, at current market prices
2.1.1.21The Caribbean: gross domestic product, by type of expenditure, at current market prices
2.1.1.22Latin America: disposable gross national income, at constant prices
2.1.1.23Latin America: disposable gross national income, at current prices
2.1.1.24Latin America: national savings, at current prices
2.1.1.25Latin America: financing of gross domestic capital formation, at current prices
2.1.1.26Aggregate value of agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing, at constant market prices
2.1.1.27Aggregate value of mining and quarrying, at constant market prices
2.1.1.28Aggregate value of manufacturing, at constant market prices
2.1.1.29Aggregate value of the electricity, gas and water sectors, at constant market prices
2.1.1.30Aggregate value of construction, at constant market prices
2.1.1.31Aggregate value of wholesale and retail trade, hotels, bars and restaurants, at constant market prices
2.1.1.32Aggregate value of transport, storage and communications, at constant market prices
2.1.1.33Aggregate value of finance, insurance, real estate and business services, at constant market prices
2.1.1.34Aggregate value of community, social and personal services, at constant market prices
2.1.1.35Total aggregate value of economic activity, at constant market prices
2.1.1.36Aggregate value of agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing, at current market prices
2.1.1.37Aggregate value of mining and quarrying, at current market prices
2.1.1.38Aggregate value of manufacturing, at current market prices
2.1.1.39Aggregate value of the electricity, gas and water sectors, at current market prices
2.1.1.40Aggregate value of construction, at current market prices
2.1.1.41Aggregate value of wholesale and retail trade, hotels, bars and restaurants, at current market prices
2.1.1.42Aggregate value of transport, storage and communications, at current market prices
2.1.1.43Aggregate value of finance, insurance, real estate and business services, at current market prices
2.1.1.44Aggregate value of community, social and personal services, at current market prices
2.1.1.45Aggregate value of economic activity, at current market prices
2.1.1.46Final consumption expenditure by general government, at constant market prices
2.1.1.47Private final consumption expenditure, at constant market prices
2.1.1.48Inventory changes, at constant market prices
2.1.1.49Gross capital formation, at constant market prices
2.1.1.50Fixed gross capital formation, at constant market prices
2.1.1.51Fixed gross capital formation in construction, at constant market prices
2.1.1.52Fixed gross capital formation in machinery, equipment and other goods, at constant market prices
2.1.1.53Exports of goods and services, at constant market prices
2.1.1.54Imports of goods and services, at constant market prices
2.1.1.55Gross domestic product, by type of expenditure, at current market prices
2.1.1.56Final consumption expenditure by general government, at current market prices
2.1.1.57Private final consumption expenditure, at current market prices
2.1.1.58Inventory changes, at current market prices
2.1.1.59Gross capital formation, at current market prices
2.1.1.60Fixed gross capital formation, at current market prices
2.1.1.61Fixed gross capital formation in construction, at current market prices
2.1.1.62Fixed gross capital formation in machinery, equipment, and other goods, at current market prices
2.1.1.63Exports of goods and services, at current market prices
2.1.1.64Imports of goods and services, at current market prices
2.1.1.65Latin America: factor payments to the rest of the world, at current market prices
2.1.1.66Latin America: net current transfers from the rest of the world, at current market prices
2.1.1.67Degree of openness of the economy, at current market prices
2.1.1.68External debt, at current market prices
2.1.1.69Implicit gross domestic product deflator
2.1.1.70Difference in the calculation of gross domestic product by kind of economic activity, at constant market prices
2.1.1.71Difference in the calculation of gross domestic product by kind of economic activity, at current market prices
2.1.1.72Difference in the calculation of gross domestic product by type of expenditure, at constant market prices
2.1.1.73Difference in the calculation of gross domestic product by type of expenditure, at current market prices
2.1.1.74Latin America: gross domestic product at constant 2010 prices, average annual rates of variation
2.1.1.75Latin America: per capita gross domestic product at constant 2010 prices, average annual rates of variation
2.1.1.76Latin America: total consumption at constant 2010 prices, average annual rates of variation
2.1.1.77Latin America: gross fixed capital formation at constant 2010 prices, average annual rates of variation
2.1.1.78Latin America and The Caribbean: contribution of domestic and foreign demand to GDP growth, 2000 -2017

2.2 EXTERNAL SECTOR
2.2.1 BALANCE OF PAYMENTS
2.2.2 EXTERNAL TRADE OF GOODS AND SERVICES


2.2.2.1Exports of primary products as a share of total exports
2.2.2.2Exports of manufactured products as a share of total exports
2.2.2.3Total exports f.o.b., by product group: primary products
2.2.2.4Total exports f.o.b., by product group: manufactured products
2.2.2.5Latin America and the Caribbean: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.4)
2.2.2.6Intraregional exports of goods, by country of origin
2.2.2.7Intraregional imports of goods, by country of destination
2.2.2.8Total intraregional trade in goods, 2017
2.2.2.9Value of total exports of goods and services
2.2.2.10Value of total imports of goods and services
2.2.2.11Latin American Integration Association: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.12Andean Community: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.13Central American Common Market: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.14Common Market of the South: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.15Common Market of the South, Plurinational State of Bolivia and Chile: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.16Antigua and Barbuda: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.17Argentina: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.18Bahamas: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.19Barbados: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.20Belize: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.21Bolivia (Plurinational State of): share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.22Brazil: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.23Chile: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.24Colombia: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.25Costa Rica: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.26Cuba: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.27Dominica: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.28Ecuador: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.29El Salvador: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.30Grenada: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.31Guatemala: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.32Guyana: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.33Haiti: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.34Honduras: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.35Jamaica: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.36Mexico: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.37Nicaragua: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.38Panama: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.39Paraguay: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.40Peru: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.41Dominican Republic: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.42Saint Kitts and Nevis: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.43Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.44Saint Lucia: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.45Suriname: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.46Trinidad and Tobago: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.47Uruguay: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.48Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of): share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)
2.2.2.49Exports of goods by broad economic categories: food and beverages
2.2.2.50Exports of goods by broad economic categories: industrial supplies not elsewhere specified
2.2.2.51Exports of goods by broad economic categories: fuels and lubricants
2.2.2.52Exports of goods by broad economic categories: capital goods (except transport equipment), and parts and accessories thereof
2.2.2.53Exports of goods by broad economic categories: transport equipment and parts and accessories thereof
2.2.2.54Exports of goods by broad economic categories: consumer goods not elsewhere specified
2.2.2.55Exports of goods by broad economic categories: goods not elsewhere specified
2.2.2.56Imports of goods by broad economic categories: consumer goods
2.2.2.57Imports of goods by broad economic categories: intermediate goods
2.2.2.58Imports of goods by broad economic categories: capital goods
2.2.2.59Total intraregional trade in goods, 1995
2.2.2.60Total intraregional trade in goods, 2000
2.2.2.61Total intraregional trade in goods, 2005
2.2.2.62Total intraregional trade in goods, 2010
2.2.2.63Total intraregional trade in goods, 2015
2.2.2.64Total intraregional trade in goods, 2016
2.2.2.65Exports of goods, f.o.b.
2.2.2.66Imports of goods, f.o.b.
2.2.2.67Exports of services
2.2.2.68Imports of services
2.2.2.69Exports of transportation services
2.2.2.70Imports of transportation services
2.2.2.71Exports of travel services
2.2.2.72Imports of travel services
2.2.2.73Exports of other services
2.2.2.74Imports of other services
2.2.2.75Latin America and the Caribbean: share of the 10 leading products in total annual exports (SITC, Rev.1)

2.3 PRICES
2.4 SECTORAL STATISTICS
3.1 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
3.1.1 ATMOSPHERE, CLIMATE AND WEATHER
3.1.2 GEOLOGICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION
3.2 LAND COVER, ECOSYSTEM AND BIODIVERSITY 3.3 ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY 3.4 ENERGY RESOURCES 3.5 LAND 3.6 BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES 3.7 WATER RESOURCES 3.8 EMISSIONS 3.9 NATURAL DISASTERS AND EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS
3.9.1 OCCURRENCE AND IMPACTS OF NATURAL DISASTERS AND EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS
3.10 ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION AND GOVERNANCE
3.10.2 PARTICIPATION IN MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS AND CONVENTIONS
3.11 HUMAN SETTLEMENTS
3.11.1 OTHER SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENTAL TOPICS FOR URBAN SETTLEMENT

 

Alicia Bárcena
Secretaria Ejecutiva / Executive Secretary

Mario Cimoli
Secretario Ejecutivo Adjunto / Deputy Executive Secretary

Raúl García-Buchaca
Secretario Ejecutivo Adjunto para Administración y Análisis de Programas / Deputy Executive Secretary for Management and Programme Analysis

Pascual Gerstenfeld
Director de la División de Estadísticas / Chief, Statistics Division

Ricardo Pérez
Director de la División de Publicaciones y Servicios Web / Chief, Publications and Web Services Division

La elaboración de la presente edición del Anuario Estadístico fue coordinada por Daniel Taccari, Estadístico de la División de Estadísticas de la Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL). La información es fruto de la oportuna colaboración de los directores de los organismos de estadísticas y los presidentes de los bancos centrales de los países de la región. El estudio fue coordinado en el área de las estadísticas sociales y demográficas por Xavier Mancero, con la colaboración de Álvaro Fuentes, Carlos Howes y Claudio Moris. La coordinación del procesamiento de las estadísticas relativas a cuentas nacionales, balanza de pagos, comercio exterior y precios estuvo a cargo de Giovanni Savio, con la colaboración de María Paz Collinao, Bruno Lana, Giannina López, Patricia Marchant, María Alejandra Ovalle y Ernestina Pérez. La coordinación del área de estadísticas ambientales y de recursos naturales estuvo a cargo de Rayén Quiroga, con la colaboración de Marina Gil, Pauline Leonard, Alberto Malmierca y Sofía del Villar. Los gráficos estadísticos fueron diseñados y elaborados por Pauline Stockins. Los aspectos de programación estuvieron a cargo de Verónica Lazo, Andrés Yáñez and Brian Ngure.

This year's edition of the Statistical Yearbook was coordinated by Daniel Taccari, Statistician with the Statistics Division of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). The information it contains was made available through the timely collaboration of the heads of statistical offices and the presidents of central banks in the countries of the region. The area of social and demographic statistics was coordinated by Xavier Mancero with the assistance of Álvaro Fuentes, Carlos Howes and Claudio Moris. The processing of statistics relating to national accounts, balance of payments, foreign trade and prices was coordinated by Giovanni Savio, with assistance from María Paz Collinao, Bruno Lana, Giannina López, Patricia Marchant, María Alejandra Ovalle and Ernestina Perez. The compilation of environmental and natural resources statistics was coordinated by Rayén Quiroga, with the assistance of Marina Gil, Pauline Leonard, Alberto Malmierca and Sofía del Villar. The statistical graphics were designed and produced by Pauline Stockins. The programming work was performed by Verónica Lazo, Andrés Yáñez and Brian Ngure.

Esta publicación debe citarse como: Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), Anuario Estadístico de América Latina y el Caribe, 2018 (LC/PUB.2018/2-P), Santiago, 2019. / This publication should be cited as: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), Statistical Yearbook for Latin America and the Caribbean, 2018 (LC/PUB.2018/2-P), Santiago, 2019

La autorización para reproducir total o parcialmente esta obra debe solicitarse a la Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), División de Publicaciones y Servicios Web, publicaciones@cepal.org. Los Estados Miembros de las Naciones Unidas y sus instituciones gubernamentales pueden reproducir esta obra sin autorización previa. Solo se les solicita que mencionen la fuente e informen a la CEPAL de tal reproducción. / Applications for the right to reproduce this work are welcome and should be sent to the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), Publications and Web Services Division, publicaciones.cepal@un.org. Member States of the United Nations and their governmental institutions may reproduce this work without prior authorization, but are requested to mention the source and inform ECLAC of such reproduction.